When it comes to choosing between operating systems, it’s usually a choice between Windows and Linux. While Windows has been the most popular choice for a number of years now, Linux has its own fanbase, and has been steadily increasing in popularity. The debate between Linux and Windows is still ongoing, but that’s a story for another time…
Let’s assume that you’ve decided to go with Linux, you’ll then need to decide on your chosen version. For Linux, each version comes in the form of distributions (or distros), which is the actual operating system that people will work with.
As well as being suitable for home computers and servers, Linux distros are powerful enough to be used for supercomputers and IoT (Internet of Things) devices. Whilst some distros are backed (and funded) by larger companies, many are driven almost entirely by the open-source community. What you will be pleased to hear, however, is that almost all of them are free to use.
If you’re already familiar with one Linux distro, you’re likely going to keep using it – why fix something that isn’t broken, after all? But if you’re just getting started in the world of Linux, you’ll need to know a little more about what’s out there before you make a firm decision. In this blog post, we put three of the most popular Linux distros head-to-head and take a closer look at their key differences, and pros and cons. Welcome to CentOS vs Debian vs Ubuntu.
What is Debian?
Available since 1993, Debian was one of the first Linux distributions and had a 17% market share of Linux web servers as of April 2020. This makes it the oldest of the three distributions we’re looking at in this blog post, and it actually acts as the base for dozens of others, including Ubuntu.
This is mostly because Debian is extremely versatile, and works well on different architectures. It’s also not backed by a corporation or organisation, and is entirely community-developed. There’s around 59,000 Debian packages available, and there’s so much you can do with it. Over its many, many years on the distribution circuit, Debian has been praised for its fast updates and stability, not to mention the incredible community that has rallied behind it over the years.
So, what does the Debian distro bring to the table? And what are its possible drawbacks?
Debian release schedule
Stable Debian releases are unscheduled but tend to be about once every two years. As a result of this large gap between releases, Debian can be seen as being quite slow to introduce new technology. This means that out of the box, a Debian Linux distro might not include some of the latest software releases and technologies. But what this does mean is that each release has undergone a more thorough testing process, and may be more stable than others with frequent releases.
The Debian Project offers security support for stable releases until one year after the next stable release. Debian 9 was released in June 2017, which meant that security support for Debian 8 ended in June 2018. Debian 8 was released in April 2015, so effectively it’s about three years.
On top of the security support, long-term support (LTS) is offered for five years after the initial release date for newer releases.
One benefit of these longer release schedules is that it provides extra time for testing before release. As such, Debian is considered to be a more stable Linux distro than others. This makes it a good choice for enterprises because there is less overhead caused by bugs in the release. It also gives time to patch security vulnerabilities, so the releases tend to be more secure than those from other Linux distributions.
Thousands of Debian packages
Debian 10 comes with around 59,000 software packages, so there is plenty to get going with. However, you can configure it to add some extra software packages if you need. Unlike some other Linux distros, Debian doesn’t offer a paid marketplace for packages – almost all of the available software packages are free. Independent vendors are able to create paid packages, though.
Although it’s been around longer, the Debian community is smaller than Ubuntu’s. However, it's made up of more technical users due to Debian’s relative complexity. Debian has a number of active user forums, a resource centre, and a large number of volunteers that help support its commitment to free software.
Is Debian good for beginners?
The Debian Linux distro is generally considered to be more suitable for Linux experts than beginners. It assumes a level of Linux development knowledge from the get-go, with the installer giving the user a higher degree of control and customisation over its configuration.
This is great for knowledgeable users as it gives them a more customised experience. This does mean, however, that it can leave newer users feeling overwhelmed, which is why the Linux Debian user base is more technical. If you’re looking for something a little more beginner-friendly, you might want to consider another distro.
How to install Debian
Before you can start using Debian, you’ll need to correctly install it. This can be achieved by:
- First, downloading the Debian file to a USB.
- Boot the file from your USB. An options display should appear, with the option ‘Graphical Debian Installer’ – click this.
- Confirm language, keyboard, and location settings to suit your preferences.
- Give your Debian operating software a name to make identification simpler.
- Create a user and password account and follow the on-screen instructions.
- In the next step you are asked whether you want to be guided through disk partitioning. This is recommended if you’re a beginner – simply follow the on-screen instructions. If you feel confident enough to partition manually, feel free to select this option instead.
- If your system is connected to the internet, you can configure the package manager. Select ‘Yes’ when asked if you want to use a network mirror.
- You’ve successfully installed Debian!
What is Ubuntu?
The first version of Ubuntu, Ubuntu 4.04, was released in October 2004 as a fork of Debian. With a 39.6% market share in April 2020, it has overtaken Debian as the world’s most popular Linux distribution. The latest version is 22.04. There are three official editions of Ubuntu:
- Desktop: this can be installed on a normal desktop computer to act as a typical operating system. It contains a graphical user interface (GUI) and comes packaged with common programs such as word processing and video playing software.
- Server: this is a stripped-down version of Ubuntu for use on small or enterprise-scale servers such as an Ubuntu VPS. This version uses only a command-line interface and comes with applications for email and web servers.
- Core: this is a security-focused version of Ubuntu made specifically for IoT (Internet of Things) devices.
Ubuntu is arguably the most popular Linux distribution. Ever since its release, Ubuntu’s sleek environment and easy-to-use interface has attracted a great deal of attention, and fans.
As we mentioned before, Ubuntu is based on Debian, which means it uses the same APT system, but it has a few advantages over its predecessor. Firstly, Ubuntu is known for having a more intuitive interface compared to Debian, and its fast update cycle allows users to enjoy new features quickly. There is also a great deal of support behind Ubuntu, from the community of loyal users to Canonical, the company behind it.
For the benefit of this blog post, we’ll be focusing on the Ubuntu desktop version, so let’s take a look at its potential pros and cons.
Ubuntu release schedule
New versions of Ubuntu are released every six months – almost always in April and October. The version numbers represent the year (20) and the month (i.e. April = 04) of release. This release period being a quarter of Debian’s means that Ubuntu gets new and updated software quicker than Debian does. But it does mean that Ubtuntu misses out on the long test period that Debian benefits from.
Ubuntu long-term support
Starting with Ubuntu 6.06, every fourth version of Ubuntu is a designated long-term support (LTS) release. LTS releases are fully supported for five years, whereas non-LTS releases are only supported for around nine months. The latest LTS release, Ubuntu 16.04 will be supported until 2021.
Can be unstable
Because of the shorter release cycles, when compared to Debian and CentOS, Ubuntu releases are less stable. The sacrifice on stability for quicker releases makes Ubuntu less suited to enterprises who value low-risk releases, but more suited to individual users who want more up-to-date packages.
Plenty of Ubuntu packages
Because Ubuntu is based on Debian, most software packages are usable on both distros, but sometimes a little bit of work is required to make them fully compatible. Unlike Debian however, Ubuntu offers free and proprietary software. What's more, there are over 75,000 software packages available on the latest release of Ubuntu.
The Ubuntu community
As Ubuntu is the most popular Linux distribution, it also has the most community support. The Ubuntu community is very active and provides help, support and tutorials on forums, in community hubs, and within smaller teams. This helps to make Ubuntu suitable for beginners, thanks to its large community who are willing to offer support and help solve problems.
Is Ubuntu good for beginners?
The default Ubuntu installation is easier and better for beginners compared to other Linux distros. The graphical installation interface is more intuitive than a command-line interface and can be installed using pre-existing settings for straightforward setup. But Ubuntu does also offer an ‘Expert Mode’ installation, which is similar to Debian’s, and allows for more customisation and configuration if required.
How to install Ubuntu
Before you get to grips with how to use Ubuntu, you’ll need to go through installation. We’ve outlined a basic step-by-step detailing how to install Ubuntu:
- The first step is to actually download the Ubuntu software. It will be roughly 2GB and you should extract the download onto a USB.
- You’ll need to create what’s called a ‘live USB’. This allows you to boot Ubuntu from your memory stick. There are several free tools online to help you execute this process such as Etcher, Rufus, UNetbootin.
- Once you’ve created your ‘live USB’, you should plug it into your computer. Restart your system and press F2, F10, or F12 when the manufacturer’s logo appears to access the BIOS settings.
- Change the boot order and put USB at the top. Save the changes and exit.
- Boot up the Ubuntu setting and follow the on-screen instructions to install the distro.
Installation is only the first step and it’s important that you also know how to update Ubuntu. The simplest option is to update via the command line, which involves logging into your Ubuntu terminal.
Then, enter the command 'sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade -y'. When prompted, enter your password and the update will then happen automatically.
How to uninstall Ubuntu
Uninstalling Ubuntu is far simpler than the installation process. It only requires you to boot your Windows display and enter your device’s control panel. From here, select 'programs and features' and click uninstall. It should be as straightforward as that.
What is CentOS?
Similar to how Ubuntu is forked from Debian, CentOS is based on the open source code of RHEL (Red Hat Enterprise Linux), and provides an enterprise-grade operating system for free. The first version of CentOS, CentOS 2 (named as such because it’s based on RHEL 2.0) was released in 2004.
CentOS stands for Community Enterprise Operating System, and the name is a big clue to one of its best benefits. As it is a free distribution that is suitable for enterprises, when you pair it with a strong connection from RHEL, it provides a consistently stable performance that has always been at the centre of CentOS’ development – making it the preferred choice for many hosting providers.
CentOS is undeniably a reliable distribution. And that tends to come from its slightly older packages, which have been meticulously cleared of bugs and security issues throughout the years. A potential downside is that updates occur less frequently than Ubuntu and Debian, and – despite it being owned by RHEL – it is an open-source distribution, so only the community is able to provide support.
Let’s put CentOS through the same comparison as Debian and Ubuntu…
CentOS release schedule
We’ve outlined a comparison between CentOS and the other two major distros: Debian and Ubuntu – in terms of release scheduling:
Debian vs CentOS: CentOS releases are more sporadic than those of Debian.
Ubuntu vs CentOS: CentOS releases are far less frequent than Ubuntu.
The last five major releases were 2019, 2014, 2011, 2007 and 2005, so there isn’t a pattern to them beyond every 2-5 years. There are, however, more frequent minor version releases.
Support for CentOS users
All major versions since CentOS 5 receive maintenance updates for 10 years and full updates for (about) six years. These updates follow the Red Hat Enterprise Linux support life cycle.
Is CentOS stable?
Only truly stable versions of CentOS are released, which is partly why they sometimes take so long – some versions require more testing than others to get to a stable state. The years between releases ensure plenty of time for thorough testing. Plus any security fixes are backported into older versions of CentOS for any vulnerabilities discovered when building the new version. This makes CentOS another good choice for enterprises.
The CentOS community
With a 16.8% market share, the CentOS user base is smaller than Ubuntu’s. And as it’s aimed at enterprises, there’s less scope for entry-level users to pick it up. There are existing and active community forums, but these are not official and exist separately. It’s therefore more difficult to find online tutorials and support.
Is CentOS for beginners or experts?
The lack of community support and its slightly harder installation makes CentOS tricky to pick up for Linux beginners. Instead, because it’s based on the enterprise-grade RHEL, CentOS is usually preferred by businesses and web agencies who are already familiar with Linux distros.
CentOS vs Debian vs Ubuntu
Although there are differences between the Linux distros, it mainly comes down to personal preference. There is no overall ‘best Linux distro’. It’s all just opinion and circumstances, but here’s three main points we’ve made summed up below:
- Ubuntu is probably better for Linux beginners because it’s easier to set up and use.
- Debian is probably better for experienced users who want full control.
- CentOS is probably better for businesses who want a more stable and secure Linux distro.
Ultimately, each distribution – whether you’re Team CentOS, Team Ubuntu or Debian-Now-And-Forever – comes with its pros and cons. You’ll want to consider your individual requirements carefully, but be prepared to make a few compromises along the way. Hopefully after reading this article, you’ll have more of a comprehensive overview of the three distributions available – which should make choosing the right OS for your dedicated server that little bit easier.